Come sono classificati i DPI? | Safety First - Sicurezza Sul Lavoro

Come sono classificati i DPI?

L’ acronimo DPI sta per Dispositivo di Protezione Individuale e indica tutte quelle attrezzature e strumenti indispensabili per poter lavorare in sicurezza in molti ambienti,  dall’ambito sanitario fino agli Spazi Confinati e/o Sospetti di Inquinamento. Di seguito, illustreremo tutte le categorie dei dispositivi e capiremo perché la formazione e l’addestramento sui DPI sono importanti per la salute e la sicurezza dei lavoratori.


DPI: a cosa servono?

Come indicato dall’apposito Decreto Legislativo

Si intendono per DPI i prodotti che hanno la funzione di salvaguardare la persona che l’indossi o comunque li porti con sé da rischi per la salute e la sicurezza.

Tra i requisiti essenziali dei Dispositivi di protezione Individuale ci sono la marcatura CE, che attesta la conformità, la sicurezza e le corrette procedure durante la fabbricazione del dispositivo.

A tal proposito, l’Art. 12. comma 3 del Decreto afferma che

Il marchio “CE” deve essere apposto sul DPI e sul relativo imballaggio in modo visibile,

leggibile e indelebile per tutto il prevedibile periodo di durata del DPI.


Ma cosa fare quando un dpi presenta difetti lievi?
Anche se i dispositivi risultano a norma, durante il loro utilizza capita che presentino dei difetti lievi. A questo punto, è dovere del lavoratore far presente eventuali danni.


Quante categorie di DPI esistono?

Come indicate dall’Allegato I del Lgs. 475/1992, le categorie dei DPI sono tre: prima, seconda e terza categoria. Questa suddivisione è realizzata in modo tale che al crescere del numero aumenta anche il rischio connesso alle attività.


Dispositivi di Protezione Individuale di I Categoria

Questa tipologia protegge i lavoratori da infortuni lievi come:

  • lesioni da prodotti per la pulizia e facilmente reversibili;
  • contatto o urti con oggetti caldi fino ai 50°C;
  • fenomeni atmosferici durante le attività lavorative;
  • lesioni meccaniche superficiali;

Infatti appartengono a questa categoria tutti quei dispositivi di protezione semplici come alcuni tipi di guanti da lavoro e tute anti umidità.


Quali Dispositivi di Protezione appartengono alla II Categoria?

Appartengono alla seconda categoria i DPI che non rientrano nelle altre due categorie.
(DL 4/12/92, n 475)

Quali attrezzature sono considerate di II Categoria?

  • Protezione per gli occhi che include anche filtri, esclusi quelli di I e III Categoria;
  • Otoprotettori, mezzi di protezione per le orecchie da indossare nell’orecchio stesso o sopra (cuffie);
  • Elmetti da utilizzare in ambienti con alte temperature (dai 100°) e rischi elettrici;
  • Indumenti che proteggono da rischi di media entità come mute da sci d’acqua, sub, giubbotti anti-proiettili, ma anche indumenti per la visibilità come giubotti con bande rifrangenti;
  • Guanti per proteggere solo le dita, i palmi e guanti da sub;
  • Protettori per arti inferiori, fissi o smontabili;


I DPI di 3 Categoria

Tutti i dispositivi che possono proteggere i lavoratori da infortuni gravi e danni permanenti sono detti di III Categoria.

Le apparecchiature che rientrano in questa categoria sono:

  • gli strumenti di protezione per le vie respiratorie da gas o liquidi irritanti, pericolosi o tossici
  • le apparecchiature che proteggono da aggressioni chimiche o radiazioni;
  • i dispositivi di protezione per condizioni di lavoro -50°;
  • tutti i dispositivi di protezione per i lavori elettrici e alte tensioni elettriche;
  • i caschi e le visiere per motociclisti;
  • dispositivi per lavori in altezza;

Approfondimenti: Lavori in altezza: corrette procedure e DPI



Chi deve fornire e consegnare i DPI?

È obbligo del datore di lavoro provvedere alla messa a disposizione dei DPi, dalla scelta fino alla consegna. È invece dovere del lavoratore utilizzare correttamente le attrezzature fornite e avere cura dei dispositivi tenendoli puliti e in buone condizioni. Il lavoratore deve inoltre far presente eventuali lesioni o difetti delle attrezzature fornite.


Quando devono essere utilizzati i dispositivi di protezione?

I DPI devono essere utilizzati quando misure di prevenzione, mezzi di protezione collettiva e l’organizzazione delle attività lavorative non possono evitare o ridurre i rischi per la salute.



Dispositivi Protezione Individuale e Formazione Obbligatoria

L’articolo 77 del D.Lgs 81/2008 prevede l’obbligo del datore di lavoro diprovvedere all’organizzazione di formazione e addestramento sul corretto utilizzo dei DPI di III Categoria. L’addestramento pratico è infatti lo strumento più efficace per garantire ai lavoratori che utilizzano questa tipologia di DPI una conoscenza pratica e specifica del proprio ambito di intervento.


Se sei interessato ai nostri corsi di Formazione e Addestramento, compila il form, noi ti ricontatteremo al più presto.

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