Come riportato nel Testo Unico sulla sicurezza sul lavoro, il datore di lavoro deve svolgere una serie di attività per garantire misure di prevenzione a protezione dei dipendenti.
Tuttavia ci sono numerose figure chiave nella sicurezza sul lavoro:
– Datore di Lavoro (DL);
– Medico Competente (MC);
– Responsabile del Servizio di Prevenzione e Protezione (RSPP);
– Addetto al servizio di Prevenzione e protezione (ASPP), figure che affiancano l’RSPP in alcune aziende, in relazione alle dimensioni o alla loro tipologia;
-Rappresentante dei lavoratori per la sicurezza (RLS);
– Addetti al Primo Soccorso;
– Addetti all’antincendio e all’Emergenza;
In questo articolo parleremo più nello specifico delle attività che deve necessariamente svolgere il datore di lavoro.
Quali sono gli obblighi?
1. Valutazione Rischi
La valutazione dei rischi e la redazione del Documento di Valutazione Rischi (DVR) sono delle attività indispensabili non delegabili per garantire la sicurezza sul lavoro.
Come redigere il DVR? Ne abbiamo parlato nell’articolo Il documento di valutazione rischi: cos’è e come redigerlo. Per maggiori informazioni, clicca qui.
Il DL deve provvedere alle nomine di figure specializzate, che avvengono tramite apposita modulistica, assegnando il ruolo ad un soggetto definito.
Tali moduli devono essere compilati e conservati in azienda insieme al DVR. Le nomine devono essere inviate al sistema informativo nazionale per la prevenzione nei luoghi di lavoro.
Di seguito tutte le nomine:
– Responsabile del Servizio di Prevenzione e Protezione (RSPP), designato esclusivamente dal datore di lavoro;
Ricordiamo che a un datore di lavoro corrisponde un solo RSPP, escludendo la possibilità di nominarne più d’uno e che la figura di RSPP può essere ricoperta da:
– datore di lavoro;
– figura interna o esterna all’azienda (tranne in casi specificati nel D. Lgs. 81/08 in cui si obbliga il datore di lavoro ad avere un RSPP interno);
– Medico Competente (MC) per eseguire la sorveglianza sanitaria, obbligatoria per legge qualora nel DVR siano stati rilevati rischi come: Movimentazione Manuale dei Carichi, agenti fisici come rumori, vibrazioni e radiazioni ottiche artificiali, campi elettromagnetici, agenti chimici pericolosi;
– Rappresentante dei Lavoratori per la Sicurezza (RSL), una figura indispensabile per il favorire il dialogo tra l’azienda e i dipendenti;
– Lavoratori incaricati alla gestione delle emergenze come primo soccorso, incendio, evacuazione, ecc. Tuttavia, quest’obbligo può essere delegato al dirigente o al preposto.
Per approfondire leggi: Prevenzione e Lotta Antincendio nei luoghi di Lavoro
3.Tutela dei lavoratori
Il testo unico sulla sicurezza prevede che il datore di lavoro tuteli i lavoratori per uno svolgimento delle attività in tutta sicurezza.
Ma cosa deve occuparsi nello specifico il datore di lavoro?
Deve occuparsi della formazione dei lavoratori e assicurarsi che quest’ultimi rispettino tutte le norme vigenti. Anche per quanto riguarda le visite mediche, il DL deve assicurarsi che i lavoratori rispettino i termini temporali delle visite e richiedere al medico l’osservanza degli obblighi a suo carico. Considerando invece l’ambito dei lavori in appalto o subappalto, il DL deve munire i lavoratori di apposita tessera di riconoscimento con fotografia, generalità del lavoratore e indicazione del datore di lavoro.
4. Comunicazione Interna
Un altro aspetto molto importante è la comunicazione interna all’azienda, dalla comunicazione rapida di pericoli immediati fino alla consultazione con il Rappresentante dei Lavoratori per la Sicurezza.
5. Comunicazione Esterna
In caso di infortuni, il datore di lavoro deve comunicare al sistema informativo nazionale per la prevenzione nei luoghi di lavoro i dati e le informazioni relativi al lavoratore infortunato.
Più nel dettaglio, la comunicazione deve avvenire tramite INAIL e IPSEMA entro le 48 ore per i casi in cui l’assenza è di minima tre giorni.
Il DL (o il soggetto delegato) deve comunicare in via telematica mediante INAIL i nominativi dei nuovi RSL.
6. Consegna dei DPI
Tra gli altri obblighi indicati nell’articolo 18 del testo unico sulla sicurezza, il datore di lavoro deve fornire adeguati Dispositivi di Protezione Individuale a norma e coerenti con i rischi rilevati insieme al medico competente.
Quali sono le regole di consegna dei DPI?
- Redigere un modulo di consegna (o verbale di consegna) su carta intestata e in duplice copia;
- Consegna del DPI e del verbale;
- Conservazione della copia da parte del datore di lavoro presso l’azienda;
La sostituzione e l’aggiornamento della dotazione avviene ogni qualvolta cambia il rischio e se le attività di verifica sulle attrezzature suggeriscono dei rischi. Queste procedure sono molto importanti, soprattutto per i DPI di III categoria.
Se vuoi approfondire questa tematica, scarica la nostra guida gratuita Il corretto utilizzo delle attrezzature e DPI qui
Il datore di lavoro deve quindi assolvere numerosi obblighi, tra i quali garantire informazione, formazione e addestramento necessari per le corrette procedure di lavoro ed un utilizzo appropriato dei DPI.
Per aiutare le aziende e il datore di lavoro nell’adempimento degli obblighi, Safety First offre i suoi servizi di consulenza, formazione e addestramento nell’ambito della Sicurezza sul Lavoro.
Compila il form sottostante per richiedere informazioni, ti ricontatteremo al più presto.
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